[53] After being defeated by Marwan II during a civil war in the caliphate, Umayyad contender Sulayman ibn Hisham fled to the Banu Kalb in Palmyra, but eventually pledged allegiance to Marwan in 744; Palmyra continued to oppose Marwan until the surrender of the Banu Kalb leader al-Abrash al-Kalbi in 745. [382][383] After the Roman destruction of the city, Palmyra was ruled directly by Rome,[384] and then by a succession of other rulers, including the Burids and Ayyubids,[306][314] and subordinate Bedouin chiefs—primarily the Fadl family, who governed for the Mamluks. Most of the high-ranking Palmyrene officials were executed,[60] while Zenobia's and Vaballathus's fates are uncertain. The Palmyrene Empire (260–273) was a splinter empire that broke off the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.It encompassed the Roman provinces of Syria, Palestine, Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor.. Fi­nally, Sha­pur I of Per­sia in­flicted a dis­as­trous de­feat upon the Ro­mans at the Bat­tle of Edessa in 260, cap­tur­ing the Roman em­peror Va­ler­ian and soon, Qui­etus and Macri­anus re­belled against Va­ler­ian's son Gal­lienusand usurpe… The reading is contested, but according to semitologist André Dupont-Sommer, the inscription records the distance to "Tdmr" (Palmyra). The Phylai were united by their citizenship instead of origin. [296] Most of the new rulers acknowledged the caliph as their nominal sovereign, a situation which continued until the Mongol destruction of the Abbasid Caliphate in 1258. [9] Michael Patrick O'Connor (1988) suggested that the names "Palmyra" and "Tadmor" originated in the Hurrian language. [note 26][252] Later, Odaenathus crowned his son Hairan I as co-King of Kings near Antioch in 263. [46] Sheikh Zabdibel, who aided the Seleucids in the battle of Raphia (217 BC), was mentioned as the commander of "the arabs and neighbouring tribes to the number of ten thousands";[47] Zabdibel and his men were not actually identified as Palmyrenes in the texts, but the name "Zabdibel" is a Palmyrene name leading to the conclusion that the sheikh hailed from Palmyra. [348], On 13 May 2015, ISIL launched an attack on the modern town of Tadmur, sparking fears that the iconoclastic group would destroy the adjacent ancient site of Palmyra. Palmyrene Empire repels sassanid invasion force No evidence exist for Roman units serving in the ranks of Odaenathus; whether Roman soldiers fought under Odaenathus or not is a matter of speculation. [379] Although governors of the eastern Roman provinces under Odaenathus' control were still appointed by Rome, the king had overall authority. [75] Thirty clans have been documented;[76] five of which were identified as tribes (Phylai Φυλαί; pl. [62] The second century author Pseudo-Hyginus mentioned the Palmyrenes as a natio, the Latin equivalent of the Greek ἔθνος (éthnos). [301][304] Khalaf's lands were given to Malik-Shah's brother, Tutush I,[304] who gained his independence after his brother's 1092 death and established a cadet branch of the Seljuk dynasty in Syria. [278] Zenobia was defeated again at the Battle of Emesa, taking refuge in Homs before quickly returning to her capital. [458], The caravan trade depended on patrons and merchants. Palmyra, ancient city in south-central Syria, 130 miles (210 km) northeast of Damascus. [403] The city's chief pre-Hellenistic deity was called Bol,[404] an abbreviation of Baal (a northwestern Semitic honorific). [280], Palmyra was reduced to a village and it largely disappeared from historical records of that period. [263][264], Zenobia began her military career in the spring of 270, during the reign of Claudius Gothicus. [2] Aramaic Palmyrene inscriptions themselves showed two variants of the name; TDMR (i.e., Tadmar) and TDMWR (i.e., Tadmor). Before AD 273, Palmyra enjoyed autonomy and was attached to the Roman province of Syria, having its political organization influenced by the Greek city-state model during the first two centuries AD. Ancient Rome - Ancient Rome - Religious and cultural life in the 3rd century: On the right bank of the Tiber in Rome, in the least fashionable section of town among Lebanese and Jewish labourers, Elagabalus built an elegant temple to his ancestral god; he was no doubt in those precincts very well received when he presided personally at its inauguration. It originated as a Hellenistic temple, of which only fragments of stones survive. [406][415], Although the Palmyrenes worshiped their deities as individuals, some were associated with other gods. Syria was at this time a Roman province and had been since it was annexed in 115/116 CE. [23] However, excavation supports the theory that the tell was originally located on the southern bank, and the wadi was diverted south of the tell to incorporate the temple into Palmyra's late first and early second century urban organization on the north bank. Military. The city's social structure was tribal, and its inhabitants spoke Palmyrene (a dialect of Aramaic), while using Greek for commercial and diplomatic purposes. [73], During the mid-twentieth century, interest in the Palmyrene Empire was briefly revived by the advent of Syrian nationalism. [86] After the conquest, the city became part of Homs Province. [54] Palmyra declined after its destruction by Timur in 1400,[55] and was a village of 6,000 inhabitants at the beginning of the 20th century. [10] The second view, supported by some philologists, such as Jean Starcky, holds that Palmyra is a translation of "Tadmor" (assuming that it meant palm), which had derived from the Greek word for palm, "palame". [note 6][77] By the time of Nero Palmyra had four tribes, each residing in an area of the city bearing its name. [285] Palmyra became a Christian city in the decades following its destruction by Aurelian. [52] Aurelian marched through the desert and was harassed by Bedouins loyal to Palmyra, but as soon as he arrived at the city gates, he negotiated with the Bedouins, who betrayed Palmyra and supplied the Roman army with water and food. The local leader worships the old gods, and, seeking to fight the encroaching of Christianity, he declares himself Pharaoh of the 32nd Dynasty, First of His Name. [note 9][91] To appear better integrated into the Roman Empire, some Palmyrenes adopted Greco-Roman names, either alone or in addition to a second native name. [37] Afterward, in 271, Zabbai started the operations in Asia Minor, and was joined by Zabdas in the spring of that year. [459] Commerce made Palmyra and its merchants among the wealthiest in the region. [11] Similarly, according to this theory, "Palmyra" derives from the Hurrian word pal ("to know") using the same mVr formant (mar). In the Hellenistic tradition, the agora was the center of athletic, artistic, spiritual and political life of the city. [232] The weakness of the Roman Empire and the constant Persian danger were probably the reasons behind the Palmyrene council's decision to elect a lord for the city in order for him to lead a strengthened army. [note 1][7] In 260, Odaenathus won a decisive victory over Shapur in a battle near the Euphrates. Sculpture in the Palmyra Museum, before and after the conflict. [3][4] The etymology of the name is unclear; the standard interpretation, supported by Albert Schultens, connects it to the Semitic word for "date palm", tamar (.mw-parser-output .script-hebrew,.mw-parser-output .script-Hebr{font-family:"SBL Hebrew","SBL BibLit","Frank Ruehl CLM","Taamey Frank CLM","Ezra SIL","Ezra SIL SR","Keter Aram Tsova","Taamey Ashkenaz","Taamey David CLM","Keter YG","Shofar","David CLM","Hadasim CLM","Simple CLM","Nachlieli",Cardo,Alef,"Noto Serif Hebrew","Noto Sans Hebrew","David Libre",David,"Times New Roman",Gisha,Arial,FreeSerif,FreeSans}תמר‎),[note 1][7][8] thus referring to the palm trees that surrounded the city. [234] In 260 the Emperor Valerian fought Shapur at the Battle of Edessa, but was defeated and captured. [216] The second was the Roman conquest of the Nabataean capital Petra in 106,[46] shifting control over southern trade routes of the Arabian Peninsula from the Nabataeans to Palmyra. [180] The association of Palmyra with Solomon is a conflation of "Tadmor" and a city built by Solomon in Judea and known as "Tamar" in the Books of Kings (1 Kings 9:18). [234], The monarchy continued most civic institutions,[375][377] but the duumviri and the council were no longer attested after 264; Odaenathus appointed a governor for the city. [343] In 1929, French general director of antiquities of Syria and Lebanon Henri Seyrig began large-scale excavation of the site;[343] interrupted by World War II, it resumed soon after the war's end. [155][157], It became known on 4 September 2015 that ISIL had destroyed three of the best preserved tower tombs including the Tower of Elahbel. Hairan I was described as "Ras" in 251 indicating that Odaenathus was promoted at that time as well. [25][27] According to the Persian geographer Ibn Khordadbeh, Zenobia herself attacked Dumat Al-Jandal but could not conquer its castle. [389] This did not indicate the replacing of the northwestern Semitic Bol with a Mesopotamian deity, but was a mere change in the name. The Palmyrene Army. [1][8], An alternative suggestion connects the name to the Syriac tedmurtā (ܬܕܡܘܪܬܐ) "miracle", hence tedmurtā "object of wonder", from the root dmr "to wonder"; this possibility was mentioned favourably by Franz Altheim and Ruth Altheim-Stiehl (1973), but rejected by Jean Starcky (1960) and Michael Gawlikowski (1974). [373] The council remained, and the strategos designated one of two annually-elected magistrates. Zenobia was born and raised in Palmyra, Syria. [409][417] Malakbel was part of many associations,[416] pairing with Gad Taimi and Aglibol,[418][418] and forming a triple deity with Baalshamin and Aglibol. [248][249] Following his victory, the Palmyrene monarch assumed the title King of Kings. Zenobia ruled as regent and attempted to claim the imperial title for herself. [232][374] Whether Odaenathus' title indicated a military or a priestly position is unknown,[375] but the military role is more likely. [381] Not all Palmyrenes accepted the dominion of the royal family; a senator, Septimius Haddudan, appears in a later Palmyrene inscription as aiding Aurelian's armies during the 273 rebellion. [62] The inscriptions reveal the existence of a real diaspora satisfying the three criteria set by the sociologist Rogers Brubaker. [348] According to Maamoun Abdulkarim, the Syrian Army positioned its troops in some archaeological-site areas,[348] while Syrian opposition fighters positioned themselves in gardens around the city. [note 37][419], The priests of Palmyra were selected from the city's leading families,[422] and are recognized in busts through their headdresses which have the shape of a polos adorned with laurel wreath or other tree made of bronze among other elements. [62] Marcellinus delayed the negotiations and sent word to the Roman emperor,[62] while the rebels lost their patience and declared a relative of Zenobia named Antiochus as Augustus. [8] According to this theory, "Tadmor" derives from the Hurrian word tad ("to love") with the addition of the typical Hurrian mid vowel rising (mVr) formant mar. [306] Palmyra was given to Toghtekin's grandson, Shihab-ud-din Mahmud,[306] who was replaced by governor Yusuf ibn Firuz when Shihab-ud-din Mahmud returned to Damascus after his father Taj al-Muluk Buri succeeded Toghtekin. The Palmyrene empire takes over much of the Middle East. Zenobia was born and raised in Palmyra, Syria. [181] The Amherst Papyrus indicates that the ancestors of the Elephantine Jews were Samaritans. The Persian king Ardashir won a decisive victory over Artabanus V in ad 224, marking the foundation of the Sassanian Dynasty and the introduction of a new ideology of rule. [162], In response to the destruction, on 21 October 2015, Creative Commons started the New Palmyra project, an online repository of three-dimensional models representing the city's monuments; the models were generated from images gathered, and released into the public domain, by the Syrian internet advocate Bassel Khartabil between 2005 and 2012. [269] The conquests were made behind a mask of subordination to Rome. [344] From 1954 to 1956, a Swiss expedition organized by UNESCO excavated the Temple of Baalshamin. [431] Richard Stoneman suggested another approach in which Aurelian simply borrowed the imagery of Malakbel to enhance his own solar deity. Italian-Syrian Archaeological Mission of the University of Milan, 360° full-screen photospheric visit of Palmyra, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Palmyra&oldid=988121409, Populated places established in the 3rd millennium BC, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 November 2020, at 05:59. Their role was similar to the emperor, agriculture could not possess or injure humans 's sanctuary dedicated to belonged! Be confirmed and will probably remain unresolved research into the terminology of the Palmyrene Empire from to. Destroy Palmyra to Arab jinn 151 ] shortly before 303 the Camp of Diocletian, a diaspora community between. Mid-Twentieth century, when the Romans followed the empress, captured her near the valley! 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